for the development of a multimodal freight

transport corridor connecting the Aegean Sea

and the Black Sea.



Overall Project

Global Project refers to the development of a multimodal corridor to link the north-east Aegean ports to the ports of the Black Sea and the Danube, thus providing an alternative route to the congested Bosporus Straits.
The main objectives of the Global Project are:

  • to assess the feasibility and viability of the Sea2Sea corridor, by examining alternative development/operational scenarios and proposing concrete actions for its realisation (this consists the main objective of the present Action)
  • provided the above assessment is positive, to undertake all required technical and operational studies for setting the corridor into operation (e.g. geotechnical studies, rail infrastructure upgrade/alignment studies, port infrastructure upgrade studies, port-rail administrative and procedural coordination studies, etc.)
  • to proceed with the necessary infrastructure implementations (works) for the operationalisation of the corridor.

The Sea2Sea Action represents the first necessary step for realising the Sea2Sea corridor. If the Action proves that the specific corridor can be both feasible and viable, then the next steps (involving the necessary technical studies and works) can follow.

Sea2Sea Study

Most of the Sea2Sea freight transport systems upgrades that have been considered, have a pan-European effect and range and they require major investments that cannot be justified in terms of a cost benefit analysis only by the forecasted Sea2Sea freight flows. For this reason, a limited number of projects have been selected and proposed for the current investment plan of the Sea2Sea corridor (stage 1), while the other necessary projects have been proposed to be implemented in a staged mode (stages 2 to 4), corresponding to the staged development of the Sea2Sea corridor according to the real transport needs.

Stage 1: Core Sea2Sea route

Since the model and the relative forecasts show critical masses of rail freight flows only between Alexandroupolis and Plovdiv, emphasis is assigned on this railway section, designated as the core Sea2Sea part. It is important that this section includes the part of the corridor which is interregional between Greece and Bulgaria.

Stage 2: Functional Sea2Sea route

The second stage of the Sea2Sea implementation can be considered as the stage that actually connects via railway the Aegean Sea with the Black Sea. At this stage, Burgas – the major Bulgarian Port in the Black Sea is integrated in the Sea2Sea Corridor, establishing a connection with Alexandroupolis in the East-Med Area.

Stage 3: Full operation Sea2Sea route

With the completion of this stage the Sea2Sea corridor will be close to its full operation potential in connecting via railway the Aegean and Mediterranean Sea with the Black Sea. At this stage the Port of Varna in the Black Sea is integrated in the Sea2Sea Corridor.

Stage 4: Added value Sea2Sea extention Route

At this final stage, the remote edges of the inland Port of Ruse on the Danube River and the Commercial port of Kavala on the Aegean Sea are integrated to the Sea2Sea network. This stage contributes with an added value in the operation of the Sea2Sea Corridor.


The concept and operation of the Sea2Sea corridor could be better supported with the development and operation of a dedicated Sea2Sea traffic control Centre and Observatory. This traffic control Centre could be responsible for:

  • monitoring the Sea2Sea traffic.

  • Integration and processing of information in relation to the operation of the corridor.

  • Co-ordination of the authorities and the operators involved in the multimodal corridor.

  • Traffic management of the corridor and minimisation of delays in case of disturbances.

The Centre could also operate as an Observatory of the Sea2Sea corridor and traffic gathering and analyzing historical data.



Bodies involved in the Sea2Sea project

National and EU Organizations and Agencies:

  • Greek Ministry of Infrastructure, Transport and Networks
  • Greek Ministry of Development and Competitiveness
  • OSE –Hellenic Railways Organization
  • TrainOSE Railway Company of Greece, Railway Carrier
  • Kavala Port Authority
  • Alexandroupolis Port Authority
  • Bulgarian Ministry of Transport, Information Technology and Communications
  • Bulgarian Ministry of Regional Development and Public Works
  • National Railway Infrastructure Company of Bulgaria (NRIC)
  • BDZ- Bulgarian State Railways, Railway Carrier
  • Bulgarian Ports’ Authority
  • Burgas Port Authority
  • Varna Port Authority
  • Ruse Port Authority
  • Terminal Authorities in Plovdiv and Stara Zagora
  • Custom Authorities of Greece and Bulgaria
  • CEF “Connecting Europe Facility”
  • European Railway Agency and the European Rail sector Associations (CER – UIC- UNIFE – EIM – GSM-R Industry Group – ERFA)

Local authorities

These are the municipal and peripheral Authorities which, being in close cooperation with the organizations implementing the projects, can actively assist in both the promotion of the results of the study and (later) in the implementation of the subsequent projects, by enhancing their visibility with the local society.

Local communities

These comprise: the inhabitants, the employees & workers in the sea-ports’ and railways’ facilities, the local societies and the affected population within the direct impact of range along the Sea2Sea Corridor. The local societies are facing the direct environmental impacts (which, in most of the cases, are negative) in a local scale and the ones that should have redeeming benefits in working places and approve the investment.


These are the cargo agents, the freight forwarders and the market clients and all the possible users of the new corridor, comprising those already using other transport routes, the owners of transport companies and all those commercially active in the region.

Study Group

The Consulting companies participating in the Consortium for the implementation of the Sea2Sea study are: ADK, AKKT, EVIAM and Milionis-Iliopoulou. PLANET S.A. participated in the implementation of the Sea2Sea study as a nominated subcontractor of the Consortium.

Expected Impacts

The results and impacts of the Sea2Sea project are expected to bring significant positive changes to the connection of the wider south-eastern with the central Europe. The main expected impacts in the affected area are the following:


Promotion of the EU integrated transport system

Seamless freight transport operations between Greece and Bulgaria

Creation of a new multimodal freight corridor

Enhancement of the competitiveness within the transport sector in the region

Decongestion of the existing transport corridors via the Bosporus strait

Modernization of the existing infrastructure and use of new practices

Enhancement of the efficiency of the transport systems in the two concerned countries

Contribution to the economic revitalization of the European South


Enhancement of the EU internal market

Integration with major networks and relative projects

such as Orient/East-Med Corridor, Motorways of the Sea network, TRACECA network

Strengthening territorial, economic and social cohesion within EU

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